Design Project - Spitfire Close
Site Analysis | Structural Axonometric Drawing | Primary Materials | Ventilation Strategy | Acoustic Strategy | Lighting Strategy | Passive Environmental Systems | Active Environmental Systems | Impacts on Running Costs | Roof Detail | Wall Detail | Floor and Foundation Detail |Detail Model | Fire Safety
Structural Axonometric Drawing
Cross - Laminated Beams
Cross Laminated Beams are a sustainable building material made by layering smaller pieces of softwood on top of each other and bonding them with glue. This process results in a strong and durable beam that can be used in place of traditional building materials. Since timber is a renewable resource, and softwood grows relatively quickly, this material has the potential to be a more sustainable alternative to other building materials. If the timber used in the manufacturing process can be sourced locally and transported over short distances, it can significantly reduce the embodied carbon of the material.
Cross Laminated Beams have been chosen for their superior structural performance and ability to facilitate a stepped slope towards the back of the housing development. Moreover, the beams are prefabricated off-site, leading to quick and efficient construction. Aesthetically, the Cross Laminated Beams provide an appealing and unique design.
Cotswold stone is a type of limestone commonly used as a building material in the Cotswold region. While this material is locally sourced and can be obtained from sustainable quarries, the extraction process and transportation can contribute to a high embodied carbon. It’s important to consider the entire lifecycle of the material, from extraction to disposal, to fully assess its sustainability. However, the use of Cotswold stone can also have cultural and historical significance, as it is a traditional building material in the region.
The use of Cotswold stone has been carefully considered due to its local sourcing and historic significance to the area. The selection of this material aims to promote cohesion and a sense of belonging with the surrounding landscape. Furthermore, the visually striking nature of the stone contributes to an engaging facade.
Timber Cladding is another building material with low embodied carbon. It is a more efficient material to use instead of clay bricks, concrete cladding panels, or metal cladding. Timber is a renewable material that can be locally sourced, and it requires minimal energy to cut and form. This material can be used for a variety of building purposes, including exterior and interior cladding, and it can provide excellent insulation and acoustic benefits.
Timber cladding has been selected not only for its environmental advantages but also for its close association with the Cross Laminated Timber structure. The installation process is straightforward and the cladding looks good as well.
Earth is a sustainable building material that has been used for thousands of years. It can be sourced on-site, requiring minimal transportation, and it provides excellent thermal mass and insulation. Building with the earth can also have aesthetic and cultural benefits, as it can blend seamlessly into the surrounding environment and reflect local building traditions. While building with earth may not be suitable for all building types or locations, it can be a sustainable and cost-effective alternative to traditional building materials.
The use of Earth as a primary material serves to blend the housing development seamlessly into its natural surroundings, allowing it to better accommodate wildlife and local flora. Additionally, the incorporation of a central pond adds to the overall ecological benefits of the development.
Using a combination of sustainable materials enhances building design and fosters contextual relevance. Local materials are crucial for this purpose. Moreover, selecting such materials reduces embodied carbon, increasing sustainability.
Passive Environmental Systems
Active Environmental Systems
Impacts on Running Costs
Proper ventilation is critical in maintaining good air quality and occupant comfort. Inadequate ventilation can cause a range of issues, such as overheating, stale air, mould growth, and increased energy costs. Therefore, it’s crucial to design the ventilation system to use the minimum amount of energy required. Poorly designed systems can lead to higher energy costs and poorer acoustics, as ventilation systems can be very loud and impact occupants’ comfort. In addition to ventilation, acoustics also play a vital role in occupant comfort. Poor acoustics can create sound reflections, making the space uncomfortable for occupants. Therefore, designers should consider wall and floor panels to reduce the impact of poor acoustics. Lastly, the lighting of a building can also affect running costs. Artificial lighting during the day can lead to high electricity bills. To reduce these costs, designers can incorporate energy-efficient LED lamps. Designers can also consider the sizes of openings in the building to maximise natural light. Organising lights into different zones will help occupants control lighting and further reduce running costs.
Scale 1:10 at A3
Scale 1:10 at A3
Floor and Foundation Detail
Scale 1:10 at A3
Scale 1:100 at A3
Smoke detectors should be mounted on the ceiling, centrally positioned with a minimum distance of 300mm from walls and light fixtures. They should be installed within 3m of escape and bedroom doors and placed between high-risk rooms and bedrooms. For peaked and sloped ceilings, the maximum vertical distance should be 600mm for smoke alarms and 150mm for heat alarms. Ensure smoke detectors are present in every room, outside sleeping areas, on every level, and in the living room. Keep a minimum distance of 3m from cooking appliances and avoid placing detectors in bathrooms. Fire doors play a critical role in protecting escape routes during fires, with a standard fire resistance of 30 minutes for single-storey houses, but upgrading to 60 minutes enhances fire safety. Egress windows should have a minimum area of 0.33m2, measuring 450mm x 450mm, with the bottom not higher than 1100mm from the floor. Automatic doors are designed to close fire doors in emergencies, and doors in doorways or exits should open in the direction of escape. The width of doors should meet specific requirements based on occupancy capacity.
There are limitations on travel distances during emergency evacuations. When there is only one available escape route, the maximum travel distance is 9m. However, if there are multiple escape routes, such as an egress window at the back of the houses and an exit at the front, the maximum travel distance can be increased to 18m. Having two exit options enables occupants to reach safety within the extended distance allowed.